In vivo studies show that intradermal injection of mRNA encoding the VEGF-A protein results in rapid and local dose-dependent protein production, suggesting therapeutic potential in vascular conditions.

In mouse models, the intradermal administration of mRNA encoding for VEGF-A can induce a localized, sustained, and reproducible biological response, including blood vessel formation and oxygenation to accelerate diabetic wound healing.

Large animal studies demonstrate that direct injection of modified mRNA can produce local protein expression while maintaining immune silence, and can induce physiological effects at an organ level.